By L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel
Size shapes medical theories, characterises advancements in production techniques and promotes effective trade. In live performance with dimension is uncertainty, and scholars in technology and engineering have to establish and quantify uncertainties within the measurements they make. This publication introduces size and uncertainty to moment and 3rd 12 months scholars of technology and engineering. Its process depends on the the world over recognized and instructed guidance for calculating and expressing uncertainty (known by way of the acronym GUM). The data underpinning the tools are thought of and labored examples and routines are unfold during the textual content. exact case reports in accordance with common undergraduate experiments are incorporated to augment the rules defined within the e-book. This consultant can be beneficial to pros in who're anticipated to understand the modern equipment during this more and more very important quarter. extra on-line assets can be found to aid the ebook at www.cambridge.org/9780521605793.
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Additional resources for An introduction to uncertainty in measurement using the GUM
When very accurate measurements are made, the uncertainties may be expressed in parts per million or even parts per billion. An error of, say, 3 micrometres when 1 metre is being measured is expressible as three parts per million. It is often advantageous to retain information on the physical quantity being measured, so we may express three parts per million in the measurement of a metre as 3 µm/m. 5 µV/V. 5 Review In order to communicate the result of a measurement we must assign a number and a unit to values emerging from an experiment.
22 Measurement fundamentals In this example this is 104 . 1 MW Engineering notation differs from scientiﬁc notation in that the powers of ten that follow the multiplication sign are limited to 3n where n = 0, ±1, ±2 etc. 780 × 103 m. Exercise D Express the values in exercise C in engineering notation. 3 Rounding and signiﬁcant ﬁgures When a number has too many signiﬁcant ﬁgures for a particular purpose, the number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures can be reduced by a simple procedure known as ‘rounding’. 15 m.
An instrument may have a systematic error other than an offset. An offset, as commonly understood, is an additive (or subtractive) systematic error, as in the case of the DMM that reads 1 µV too high. A systematic error may also be multiplicative. 000 006 V. 1, such a multiplicative systematic error will affect the slope. A systematic error may be revealed by one of two general methods. In the following discussion, we use the term ‘device’ to refer to either an instrument or an artefact. We may look up previously obtained information on the devices used in a measurement.
An introduction to uncertainty in measurement using the GUM by L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel