By Lev Okun
Translated from Russian by means of Vitaly Kisin
This little ebook concentrates at the foundations of recent physics (its "ABC's") and its such a lot primary constants: c the speed of sunshine and ħ— the quantum of motion.
to start with, the booklet is addressed to expert physicists, yet with the intention to in attaining maximal focus and readability it makes use of the best (high university) arithmetic. for this reason many pages of the ebook might be worthwhile to school scholars and should entice a extra normal viewers.
Readership: students and readers within the actual sciences.
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Additional info for ABC of Physics : A Very Brief Guide
4 Mass of quantum state I need to emphasize that a quantum state has no specific value of kinetic energy, nor a specific value of potential energy. It only has a definite value of the total rest energy of the given state or of its mass. Thus the mass of the ground state of the hydrogen atom is mH = mp + me − ε1 /c2 . 5 Orbital quantum number The state of the electron depends, in addition to the principal quantum number n, also on the orbital quantum number l, and such that l ≤ n−1. The orbital quantum number describes the orbital angular momentum of the electron.
Fermions and bosons∗ A key role in the structure of atoms is the Pauli exclusion principle. As already mentioned earlier, the electron spin equals 12 . Electrons obey the Pauli principle which states that not more than one electron can occupy a given quantum state. A similar principle is true for all particles with half-integer spin (they are called fermions). I have to add that particles with integer spin are called bosons. g. all electrons or all photons) are exactly identical. Not more than one fermion (electron) can occupy a given state; by contrast, there can be any number of bosons (photons) occupying the same state.
Here chance rules; random phenomena are described by the probability theory. 5 The role of chance in the two-slit experiments The confirmation of wave properties of microscopic particles passing through two slits of the first screen and creating an interference pattern on the second screen standing behind the first played an important role in the evolution of quantum mechanics. The pattern is the sharper, the greater the number of particles passing through the slits. Note that particles can pass through the slits one-by-one; this proves that an individual particle possesses wave properties.
ABC of Physics : A Very Brief Guide by Lev Okun